The vast majority of bilingual studies involve two spoken languages. Such "unimodal" bilingualism automatically entails a severe production constraint because one cannot physically produce two spoken words or phrases at the same time. In addition, for unimodal bilinguals both languages are perceived by the same sensory system (audition), whereas for bimodal (speech-sign) bilinguals one language is perceived auditorily and the other is perceived visually. This project investigates the consequences of these sensory-motoric differences in language modality for the psycholinguistics of bilingualism, for the features of co-speech gesture, and for the nature of the bilingual brain. We ask the following questions:
bilinguals, the articulators
do not compete
- What are the ramifications of removing constraints on simultaneous articulation?
- Do bimodal bilinguals code-switch?
- Does bimodal bilingualism affect co-speech gesture?
- How do bimodal bilinguals control sign language production while speaking?
- What is the nature of the bimodal bilingual brain?
This research is supported by the National Institute on Child Health and Human Development (R01 HD047736).
- Emmorey, K., Petrich, J.A.F., & Gollan, T. H. (2013). Bimodal bilingualism and the frequency-lag hypothesis. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 18(1), 1-11.
- Nicodemus, B., & Emmorey, K. (2013). Direction asymmetries in spoken and signed language interpreting. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16(3), 624-636. Click to request PDF
- Casey, S., Emmorey, K., & Larrabee, H. (2012). The effects of learning American Sign Language on co-speech gesture. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15(4), 677-686.
- Baus, C., Carreiras, M., & Emmorey, K. (2013). When does iconicity in sign language matter? Language and Cognitive Processes, 28(3), 261-71. Click to request PDF
- Emmorey, K., Petrich, J. A. F., & Gollan, T.H. (2012). Bilingual processing of ASL-English code-blends: The consequence of accessing two lexical representations simultaneously. Journal of Memory and Language.
- Pyers, J., Gollan, T.H., & Emmorey, K. (2009). Bimodal bilinguals reveal the source of tip-of-the-tongue states. Cognition, 112, 323-329.
- Casey, S., & Emmorey, K. (2009). Co-speech gesture in bimodal bilinguals. Language and Cognitive Processes, 24 (2), 290-312.
- Emmorey, K., Luk, G., Pyers, J.E., & Bialystok, E. (2008). The source
of enhanced cognitive control in bilinguals. Psychological Science,
- Emmorey, K., Borinstein, H.B., Thompson, R., & Gollan, T.H. (2008).
Bimodal bilingualism. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11(1),
- Emmorey, K., & McCullough, S. (2008). The bimodal brain: Effects of
sign language experience. Brain and Language.
- Pyers, J., & Emmorey, K. (2008). The face of bimodal bilingualism:
ASL grammatical facial expressions are produced when bilinguals speak
to English monolinguals. Psychological Science, 19, 531-535.
- Emmorey, K., Borinstein, H.B., Thompson, R. (2005). Bimodal bilingualism: Code-blending between spoken English and American Sign Language. In J. Cohen, K. McAlister, K. Rolstad, & J. MacSwan (Eds), Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press. Click to request PDF
- Emmorey, K., Grabowski, TJ., McCullough, S., Ponto, L., Hichwa, R., & Damasio, H. (2005). The neural correlates of spatial language in English and American Sign Language: A PET study with hearing bilinguals. NeuroImage, 24, 832-840. Click to request PDF